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Does the recent cryptocurrency crash pose a threat to global financial system?

Representations of virtual cryptocurrencies are seen in this illustration. (REUTERS)

Compared with the Fed's last tightening cycle which began in 2016 crypto is a much bigger market, raising concerns about its interconnectivity with the rest of the financial system.

HOW BIG IS THE CRYPTOCURRENCY MARKET?

In November, the most popular cryptocurrency, bitcoin, hit an all-time high of more than $68,000, pushing the value of the crypto market to $3 trillion, according to CoinGecko. That figure was $1.51 trillion on Tuesday.

Bitcoin accounts for nearly $600 billion of that value, followed by ethereum, with a $285 billion market cap.

Although cryptocurrencies have enjoyed explosive growth, the market is still relatively small.

The U.S. equity markets, for example, are worth $49 trillion while the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association has pegged the outstanding value of U.S. fixed income markets at $52.9 trillion as of the end of 2021.

WHO OWNS AND TRADES CRYPTOCURRENCIES?

Cryptocurrency started out as a retail phenomenon, but institutional interest from exchanges, companies, banks, hedge funds and mutual funds is growing fast.

While data on the proportion of retail versus institutional investors in the crypto market is hard to come by, Coinbase, the world's largest cryptocurrency exchange, said institutional and retail investors each accounted for about 50% of the assets on its platform in the fourth quarter.

Its institutional clients traded $1.14 trillion in crypto in 2021, up from just $120 billion in 2020, Coinbase said.

Most of the bitcoin and ethereum in circulation is held by a select few. An October report from the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) found that 10,000 bitcoin investors, both individuals and entities, control about one-third of the bitcoin market, and 1,000 investors own approximately 3 million bitcoin tokens.

Approximately 14% of Americans were invested in digital assets as of 2021, according to University of Chicago research.

COULD A CRYPTO CRASH HURT THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM?

While the overall crypto market is relatively small, the U.S. Federal Reserve, Treasury Department and the international Financial Stability Board have flagged stablecoins - digital tokens pegged to the value of traditional assets - as a potential threat to financial stability.

Stablecoins are mostly used to facilitate trading in other digital assets. They are backed by assets that can lose value or become illiquid in times of market stress, while the rules and disclosures surrounding those assets and investors' redemption rights are murky.

That could make stablecoins susceptible to a loss of investor confidence, particularly in times of market stress, regulators have said.

That happened on Monday, when TerraUSD, a major stablecoin, broke its 1:1 peg to the dollar and fell as low as $0.67, according to CoinGecko. That move partly contributed to bitcoin's fall.

Although TerraUSD maintains its tie to the dollar through an algorithm, investor runs on stablecoins that maintain reserves in assets like cash or commercial paper could spill over into the traditional financial system, causing stress in those underlying asset classes, say regulators.

With more companies' fortunes tied to the performance of crypto assets and traditional financial institutions dabbling more in the asset class, other risks are emerging, say regulators. In March, for example, the Acting Comptroller of the Currency warned that banks could be tripped up by crypto derivatives and unhedged crypto exposures, given they are working with little historical price data.

Still, regulators overall are divided on the size of the threat a crypto crash poses to the financial system and broader economy.

This story has been published from a wire agency feed without modifications to the text. Only the headline has been changed.

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Dive Deeper:
Bitcoin plunges while stablecoin Terra delinks from the dollar
This week, bitcoin fell briefly below $30,000 (€28,526) for the first time in 10 months, while cryptocurrencies overall have lost…
Coinbase Customers Sue Over Stablecoin That’s ‘Anything But’
Coinbase Global Inc. was sued over its role in the promotion and trading of a stablecoin that allegedly was “anything…
$400 billion crypto sell-off worsens as bitcoin slumps 10%
Trouble at a major “stablecoin” called TerraUSD, combined with interest rate rise fears, has sparked “extreme fear across the crypto…
Tether Loses Dollar Peg as Crypto Anxiety Hits No. 1 Stablecoin
Dominoes are falling in crypto. First it was the collapse of algorithmic stablecoin TerraUSD, sowing turbulence in the broader market.…
One subscription that gives you access to news from hundreds of sites
The significance of the crash of stablecoin terraUSD
Stablecoin terraUSD (UST) crashed from its $1 value this week, while its sister token Terra (Luna) slumped more than 95%…
Bitcoin falls below $26,000, tether briefly edges down from $1 peg
Cryptocurrencies have been hit by a steep stock selloff and the decoupling of a major stablecoin from its peg
Get all your news in one place